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The science behind the Moderna vaccine: triggering an immune response against Covid-19 with mRNA

The vaccine, based on mRNA technology, was developed by Moderna in collaboration with the National Institute of Health, and work began in January 2020. Messenger RNA (mRNA) technology triggers an immune response by activating cells to respond to the invasive infection of SARS-CoV for fight. 2. The Modern vaccine relies on genetic instructions to build spike proteins that are dotted on the surface of the coronavirus.

Cells read mRNA to make proteins. However, when injected directly, the body’s natural enzymes cut it into pieces. Moderna wraps mRNA in oily vesicles made of lipid nanoparticles. Since mRNA is very fragile and breaks down at room temperature, it must be refrigerated and remain stable for up to six months when shipped. The vaccine should be stored at minus 20 degrees Celsius.
Once injected, the mRNA present in vaccines helps produce pieces of protein that the body identifies as “foreign” agents. Then the immune cells begin to release antibodies against the proteins and eventually develop an immune response. These antibodies are activated as soon as the real virus tries to enter the body.


Moderna announced preliminary data from its phase III clinical trial in November 2020, showing an efficacy rate of 94.1 percent. Phase III trials included 30,000 volunteers from across the United States, a quarter of whom were over the age of 65.

The company also conducts clinical studies in children between the ages of 12 and 18.

The company enrolled 3,732 children, ages 12 to 17, and 2,500 received two doses of the vaccine, while others received a placebo. The company claimed 100 percent effectiveness without cases of symptomatic Covid-19 in fully vaccinated teens. Moderna applied for emergency authorization from the Food and Drug Administration on June 11 to use its vaccine in children ages 12 to 17.


Side effects of the vaccine, which is approved in more than 40 countries, including Canada and Israel, can include arm pain, redness, sometimes swelling, fatigue, chills, fever and nausea, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Disease Prevention (CDC).

Moderna announced in April that it would produce from 800 million to 1 billion cans in 2021 and increase production to 3 billion cans by 2022.

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